Classroom Strategies for Encouraging Collaborative Discussion
This document offers strategies for English-as-a-second-language (ESL), bilingual, and mainstream teachers on how to create a learning environment that facilitates English language acquisition among English language learners (ELLs). The paper uses a theoretical framework of patterns of student-teacher discourse. While not an empirical research paper, the author argues for the need to support English language learning through collaborative talk in the classroom; evidence of the effect of collaborative talk (for example, on students listening comprehension) is not provided.
Cooperative Learning, Values, and Culturally Plural Classrooms
This report by Johnson and Johnson provides evidence for the value of cooperative learning in the classroom.
Collaborative Practices in Bilingual Cooperative Learning Classrooms
This research report by Gumperz, Cook-Gumperz, and Syzmanski addresses the value of informal conversations in cooperative learning environments.
Lessons From Research: What Is the Length of Time It Takes Limited English Proficient Students to Acquire English and Succeed in an All-English Classroom?
This recent (September 2000) paper discusses the issue of length of time needed for English language learners (ELLs) to acquire English and participate successfully in all-English or mainstream classrooms. The author derives four lessons from prior reviews of educational research. That is followed by key findings from nine well-cited, government-funded research reviews in the area of ESL/bilingual education. The author stresses individual variability in the amount of time needed to acquire academic language.